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Ambiguous and Information Warfare in a Russian and Chinese Age

Patrick Porter, University of Exeter (UK)

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Project Title: Ambiguous and Information Warfare in a Russian and Chinese Age
Principal Investigators: Patrick Porter, University of Exeter (UK)

Historical case studies will be analyzed against current activity with a view to forming a clearer picture of how ambiguous warfare has evolved and what its operating methodologies are – in particular as they are deployed by China and Russia. The project will provide a baseline definition of the origins, principles and methods of ambiguous warfare as employed by Russia and China. The secondary outcome will be to identify vulnerabilities within the ability of Western liberal democracies to counter ambiguous warfare by authoritarian states such as Russia and China, and discuss how the threat can be countered, dissuaded or deterred.