Cyber conflict has not yet escalated from a fight inside cyberspace to a more traditional armed attack because of cyberspace. In part this is because countries understand there are some tacit upper limits to escalation above which the response from the offended country will be war. Unfortunately, this happy state may not last: Cyber conflict and competition are intensifying, increasing the chances of escalation into a true global crisis.
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Associated Minerva-funded project: Strategic Dynamics of Cyber Conflict